According to Eurostat (2017) explained that water is essential for life and can be referred as surface water and ground water and also there is renewal water resource which calculate the internal flow which comprises precipitation minus actual evaporation. Water can obtained through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen which results to water. Water has been good service both human being and other living things, water is on demand for life on earth because every living organism require water in order to survive. The source of fresh water is associated with the presence of forest and mountainous ecosystem which contribute largely on the presence of fresh water (Reid et al., 2005). The world population has increased and there is high demand for water resource use though there is increase of water scarcity compared to the ratio of the population consumption on water resource. Therefore the aim of this study will be to speculate factors for water scarcity and demand with the ratio of population, challenges facing water utility with the current population increase in the city areas also the study will find out the measures to be taken sustainable and accessible of water resource for economic and social development.
1.2 Background of the research problem
The urban population of the world is forecasted to reach 6.3 billion people from 3.4 billion in 2009, in which it present population growth and net migration. This increased population in the urban areas stress the demand of water with high consumption, also the urban population lack access to improved water supply and sanitation up to 20% since the millennium Development Goals has been established. The water demand in the world has been dramatically increased due to the increase number of people with high demand to water resource also due the development of economic activities such as agriculture , production of energy , industrial uses and human consumption is very high (UN Water 2008). The world population for supply of water is approximately to reach four billion people and sometimes up to two thirds of the global population. The current trend incur the global climate change has led to the threat on sustainable water suppl. the global fresh water has been expanding up to a mean rate of about 20% between 1960 and 2000 , in which the water use has doubled in one decade. The use of water by human has been unattainable. From 5% to 25% of global freshwater use exceeds long term accessibility and about one billion people live in areas with no good access to freshwater to sustain their life. Therefore also it has been explained that water use is predicted to grow by approximately 10% between 2000 and 2010 compare with rate of 20% over the past forty years (Reid, et al2005).