Although some marketing practices are as old as the earliest trades
Although some marketing practices are as old as the earliest trades, some refers that modern marketing concept have its roots from the Industrial Revolution (around 1750 in United Kingdom, and then in 1830 in United States and Germany) (Fahy 2015 p.3) which other claims otherwise that marketing originate from the late XIX/early XX century with the evolvement of mass market in United States (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4; Powell 1910 in Ludicke 2006 p.3; Ludicke 2006 p.3; O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). Indeed, as began to surface a strong competitivity between small local farmers to reach the larger market distribution against institutionalized entities during the production era (Ludicke 2006 p.3), marketing has since then become a subject of undergoing intense study (Powell 1910, Butler 1917 et al in Ludicke 2006 p.3), reexamined and revised over the course of time coinciding with economic growth, technology development and society changes as marketing had been observed to be relevant to its transformation (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4, Sweeney 1972 p.3, Kotler 1999 p.1). The study of marketing extended its nature and scope (now counting; goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas), building complexity to its meaning, enveloping now however, a rich and diverse concepts and tools, all to aid marketers to determine and establish the best marketing process and decision to reach organization’s objectives (Kotler 1999 p.3-4), essentially directed to result in profitability (Kotler 1999 p.1). Today, marketing can be distinguished from two different perspectives; (1) marketing as a managerial function (2) marketing as a societal process (Kotler 1999 p.4, Ohio State University 1965 in Hunt 2010 p.8). Although both are directed to benefit organizations, the major distinction of marketing as a societal process lies in its additional core purpose and role; to benefit the society (Kotler 1999 p.14) as marketing in a one hand is indeed fundamental to reach organization objectives through organization management skills and techniques but also had been observed to have a major role and impact to the society in which it is practiced (Lazer 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8; Sweeney 1972 p.3). Consequently, marketing can be defined as “a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and services of value freely with others.” (Kotler 1999 p.4). In contrast, marketing had been for a long time referred as an “art of selling products” (in Kotler 1999 p.4) even more so that is needed or wanted (Drucker 1973 in Kotler 1999 p.4). Indeed, as it origins indicates, marketing can be referred (in its primitive sense), as a business discipline (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4) for profit-oriented organizations, built though business activities and processes (American Marketing Association 1985 in Hunt p.8) for the greatest purpose of market transaction (Luck 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8-9) involving the exchange of money, goods and/or services between a producer/seller and consumer/buyer (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4) and which it process is only feasible when both or more parties that are involve are “able to carry communication and distribution” (Kotler and Zaltman p.4). Thus, marketing envelops several concepts, among others being (1) production concept; established through a mass, inexpensive and efficient production of goods or services distributed in a large-scale (2) product concept; focused on creating best quality and innovative products/services on the market and improved them overtime (3) selling concept; focus on creating sales transactions through using aggressive promotion tools strategies (Kotler 1999 p.11-12).
However, over time and more precisely in the 60’s, marketing had been observed to be practiced and beneficial as well for nonbusiness/nonprofit oriented organizations (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8), thereby, marketing could no longer be defined solely through activities of transportation, buying and selling (Lavidge 1970 in Hunt 2010 p.9) for ultimate goal and concern for market transaction.
Although some had been resilient to extend marketing concept from fear that it could bring further irrelevancy and unpracticality for marketing practitioners (Luck 1969 in Hunt p.9), other found reason that marketing should be defined in a more inclusive way and studied through diverse different field (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10). Doubtlessly, as marketing action and theory’s core essence remain as an “exchange” (Lüdicke 2006 p.6), “exchange process” and “transaction” (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4; Newman 1993 p.8) or “transfer” (Kotler 1999 p.7), this one commented therefore to lie on “general idea of exchange” (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.9) of “value” (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10). Also, at that time in the United States, appeared new product policies and growing concerns and consciousness toward the environment, obligating marketers take these issues with great consideration through their practices for the sake of the organizations’ long-term survival helping significantly as well to gain in competitivity (Dawson 1971 p.67-68). On the basis of the second last foregoing, the exchange being a process (Kotler 1999 p.7) must be primarily “concerned with how transactions are created, stimulated, facilitated, and valued” (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10) as this crucial analysis increase the chances that the exchange will result to transaction or transfer (Kotler 1999 p.7). This is when marketing management concepts (or marketing as a managerial function) comes into greater play, performing an essential instrument to marketing and business operational tasks, helping to reach marketing’s goal and lower significantly financial and investments risks that organizations (both profit and non-profit) take whenever they introduce a new product or service in the market (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4). Defined as: “analyzing, planning, implementation and control of program designed to bring about desired exchange with target audiences for the purpose of personal or mutual gain… relies heavily on adaptation and coordination of product, price, promotion and place for achieving effective response” (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p. 4), marketing management deals with identifying best appropriate target market constructed on the base of various criteria (such as socio-demographic, geographical, psychographic, behavioral), exanimating their wants and needs helping to design the best desired product or services and building a market offering (). For that,