CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION “Everything is easy when you are busy
“Everything is easy when you are busy. But nothing is easy when you are lazy.”
— Swami Vivekananda
A person with good health and fitness becomes able to live his/her life to its fullest extent. It is very important for a person in life to be physically and mentally fit to live a healthy and happy life. Healthy and fit people become less prone to the medical conditions. Fitness does not mean to be physically fit only, it also means with healthy mental state of the person. The simple way to re Healthy and fit people can easily face all the ups and downs of their life and less affected by any drastic change.( PLEASE PUT SOME SEDENTARYPEOPLE/ LIFE STYLE RELAED LINES)
“I believe that the greatest gift you can give your family and the world is a healthy you”.
— Joyce Meyer
‘Health’ is a state of complete physical, social and mental well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is thus a level of functional efficiency of living beings and a general condition of a person’s mind, body and spirit, meaning it is free from illness, injury and pain. It is a resource of everyday life and a positive concept emphasizing physical capabilities. Good health is a secret of every happy man. Staying healthy for children is vital for proper growth and development of mind and body as they need to focus in the class and fully participate in the activities on the field. If you are strong and healthy, you can be a shining example to others and teach them how to achieve vibrant health. Good health is a matter of great concern, to maintain it, healthy living and a disciplined life is a must.
Good health and freedom from disease is the best achievement of life. Modern medicine as well as yoga has scientific basis and universal outlook. It is gratifying that science has started studying the effects of yogic techniques, while yoga has started using modern technology and scientific methods. Scientific research has shown that yogic techniques produce consistent and beneficial physiological changes. A few weeks of disciplined yoga practice can lead to improvement in many physiological and psychological functions. Practice of asana and pranayamas results in an overall improvement in cardio-respiratory functions and physical fitness which improves one’s tolerance to stressors.
Yoga is recognized as one of the most important and valuable heritage of India. Today, whole world is looking towards yoga for answering various problems. Yoga is believed to be 4000 to 8000 years old with its origins in the Indus Valley civilization in the northwestern part of India. 1 The word yoga, meaning “unity or oneness,” was derived from the Sanskrit word yuj which means “to join.” Yoga was first mentioned in Rig Veda, the oldest sacred text of Brahmanism, which formed the basis of modern day Hinduism in approximately 1500 B.C.E. Before this time, it is believed that yoga techniques were kept secret by the sages and never written down. 2 In the Upanishads (800-500 B.C.E.), yoga was thought of as a way of life that would allow an individual to achieve libera from suffering. Through subsequent time periods, texts, and teachers, the definition of yoga has expanded to incorporate a wide range of disciplines, philosophies, and practices. bid
The most prominent and recognizable form of yoga, especially in the Western world, is hatha yoga. It is a branch of yoga that concentrates on physical health and mental well-being. Through practicing various body postures (asana), breathing techniques (pranayama), and meditation, it is believed that one can obtain a sound physical body as well as a calm and peaceful mind.
Regular practice of a variety of yoga techniques have been shown to lower heart rate and blood pressure in various populations. In recent years, it has become more apparent that people need techniques to help them cope with the everyday stressors of modern life. With stress related hypertension and cardiovascular disease on the rise, these hatha yoga techniques may provide a platform for health and well-being. This form of yoga may provide much needed physical and mental therapy.
Regardless of the testimony of celebrities or the documented physiological benefits of regular yoga or mind-body practices, even the most motivated individuals find it challenging to find time to implement any of the worthwhile yoga techniques available to them. With various organized classes ranging from 45 to 90 minutes in length, it is often difficult to incorporate a daily or weekly yoga practice given the time already appropriated to regular cardiovascular or resistance training routines. Carving time for yoga or flexibility training with a schedule that is already full morning to night is nearly impossible for most people. In most cases, facilitating mind and body flexibility is easily put aside when it is probably needed the most.
However, keeping the body flexible may help decrease tightness and tensions that can lead to chronic and often debilitating physical problems. Once sidelined from regular activities due to orthopedic or other problems, it becomes increasingly difficult to be motivated to start exercising again. Regardless of the potential physical risks of inflexibility, even the most dedicated runner or recreational athlete often does not make time for adequate flexibility training.
Yoga brings stability to the body and the wavering mind. In order to accomplish it, Yoga makes use of different movements, breathing exercises relaxation technique and meditation. Yoga is associated with a healthy and lively lifestyle with a balanced approach to life. It is the union between the mind, body and spirit. It involves the practice of physical postures and poses, which is referred to as ‘Asana’ in Sanskrit. Our modern day lifestyle is too hectic and puts a lot of stress on us which in turn causes a lot of life style problems like obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes etc. Yoga is the answer to all these problems. It offers harmless solutions to these problems in the form of relaxation. Studies in the field of medicine suggest that Yoga is the only form of physical activity that provides complete exercise to the body as it incorporates different aspects of science, philosophy and art. It is one of the most effective and integrated systems for gaining control and experiencing supreme joy in life. It helps one achieve optimum physical and psychological health. It is a system of physical, mental and spiritual techniques and is a practical, lively approach to life. It is the master key to open the realms of everlasting bliss and deep-residing peace.
“If you want to shine like the sun, first burns like the sun”.
— Abdul Kalam
Without the sun, there will be no life on earth. Surya Namaskar or ‘Sun Salutation’ is a very ancient technique of paying respect or expressing gratitude to the sun that is the source of all forms of life on the planet. Symbolically, the sun becomes our source of energy as well. About the history of this technique, it has been said by the ancient rishis of India that the different parts of the body are governed by different devas (divine impulses or divine light).The solar plexus (located behind the navel, which is the central point of the human body), also known as the second brain, is said to be connected to the sun. This is the main reason why the ancient rishis recommended the practice of Surya Namaskar, because the regular practice of this technique enhances the solar plexus, which increases one’s creativity and intuitive abilities .Surya- Namaskar also known as Sun Salute or Salute to the Sun, is an all-time favorite of many yogis. Its root is in India where there are many Hindu worshippers of Surya who is the Sun deity.
Surya Namaskar is a yoga practice (routine) that consists of a series of 12 physical postures made up of a variety of forward and backward bends. The series of movements stretch the spinal column and massage, tone and stimulate vital organs through alternately flexing the body forwards and backwards. The series of movements stretch the spinal column and upper and lower body through their full range of motion, massaging, toning and stimulating vital organs by alternately flexing the body forwards and backwards. It builds upper body strength through the inherent weight bearing positions, especially in the arms and shoulders, throughout the series. The simulated push-up movement and upper body weight bearing positions in the series may help to develop muscular strength and endurance in the pectoral, triceps, as well as the muscles of the trunk. The series gives such a profound stretch to the body that it is considered to be a complete yoga practice by itself.
Time of practice: The ideal time to practise surya namaskara is at sunrise, the most peaceful time of day. Whenever possible, practise in the open air, facing the rising sun. Sunset is also a good time to practise as it stimulates the digestive fire. Surya namaskara, however, may be practised at any time provided the stomach is empty. Preparation: Before commencing the practice, stand with the feet together or slightly apart, and the arms hanging loosely by the side of the body. Close the eyes gently and become aware of the whole physical body as one homogeneous unit. In this position the body may sway from side to side or backward and forward. Try to minimise this oscillation and balance the body weight equally on both feet. Bring the awareness inside the body and mentally begin to relax it. Starting from the top of the head, take the awareness systematically through all the parts, releasing any tension. Intensify, once more, the awareness of the whole physical body and feel in harmony with it. Take the awareness to the soles of the feet in contact with the floor. Feel that the whole body is being pulled downwards by gravity and that any tensions are being pulled down, through the body and into the ground. At the same time, experience the vital force surging up from the earth and flooding the whole being. Finally, take the awareness to the eyebrow centre and visualise a brilliant, red rising sun infusing the whole body and mind with its vitalising and healing rays. Imagine you are facing the early morning sunrise, about to practise surya namaskara with smooth synchronised movements, flowing into one another like a dance.
Description of suryanamaskar (Sun Salutation)
The Sun Salutation is a 12-part warm-up exercise. It limbers up the body and mind in preparation for the ensuing yoga session. Each of the 12 positions brings a different vertebral movement to the spinal column and is tuned to the inhalation or exhalation of the breath, thereby instilling a feeling of balance and harmony. The positions follow on from one another, making this Salutation graceful to perform.
1. Prayer Pose: Stand up straight with one feet together and one’s arms by one’s sides. Take a deep breath, and then exhale while bringing one’s palms together at chest level.
2. Arch Back: Inhale and stretch one’s arms up over one’s head. Arch one’s back, so one’s hips come forwards, and stretch as far as is comfortable.
3. Bend Over: Exhale as one stretch forwards and bend down into the third Sun Salutation position. Bring one’s hands down to the floor, and place them next to one’s feet, with the palms downwards. One’s hips should be kept as high as possible. If necessary, bend one’s knees so that one can touch the ground. Tuck one’s forehead in towards one’s knees.
4. Leg Back: Inhale as one stretch one’s right leg back as far as possible and bend one’s right knee, lowering it to the floor. Stretch one’s head and look upwards. One’s hands should stay in the same position throughout the movement.
5. Push up Pose: Retain the breath. Bring one’s left foot back, next to one’s right foot. Keep one’s spine straight and do not let one’s head or hips drop.
6. Lower chest to the floor: Exhale, Lower one’s knees to the floor and one’s chest straight down between one’s hands, without rocking one’s body. Bring one’s forehead to the floor (a beginner may need to lower the chin instead).
7. Arch one’s Chest: Inhale as one slide one’s body forwards and bring one’s hips down to the floor. Arch one’s chest towards and tilt one’s head back. Slightly bend one’s elbows into one’s body.
8. Inverted ‘V’: Exhale, tucking one’s toes under, and raising one’s hips to come into the inverted “V”. Do not move one’s hands or feet as one come into position.
9. Lunge Forwards: Inhale as one bring one’s right foot forwards and place it between one’s hands, dropping one’s left knee to the floor. 133 Raise one’s head and look up to the ceiling.
10. Forehead to knees: Exhale as one bring one’s left foot forwards and place it next to one’s right foot, so that the tips of one’s fingers and toes form a straight line. Raise one’s hips and stretch them upwards, keeping one’s hands in the same position. If one cannot straighten one’s legs fully, allow one’s knees to remain slightly bent, but keep one’s hips up throughout. Bring one’s head down as far as possible and tuck it in as close to one’s knees as one can manage.
11. Stretch Back: Inhale and then stand up, stretching one’s arms over one’s head as one straighten one’s body. Stretch one’s arms back, arch one’s chest and hips, and keep one’s feet together.
12. Return to Start: Exhale and straighten up, lowering one’s arms to one’s sides. Now take a deep breath and prepare to begin another Sun Salutation sequence.
(sedentary people /life style)
Statement of the problem
The purpose of the study is stated as” Effect of Dynamic Surya Namaskar on Motor and Physiological Variables of Sedentary College Students.”
Objectives of the Study
1. To characterize the Motor Variables (Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility, Speed, Agility and Reaction Time) and Physiological variables (Pulse rate, Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), Vital capacity and Respiratory rate) of sedentary college students.
2. To find out the effect of Dynamic Suryanamaskar on Motor and Physiological Variables of Sedentary college students.
3. To find out the comparison between Conventional (Traditional) method of suryanamaskar and Dynamic Suryanamaskar.
4. The Sub objective of the present study will be to determine the significant difference of adjusted post-test means among three groups (Two Experimental and one control group) of sedentary college students in relation to Motor Variables (Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility, Speed, Agility and Reaction Time).
5. The another Sub objective of the present study will be to determine the significant difference of adjusted post-test means among three groups (Two Experimental and one control group) of sedentary college students in relation to Physiological variables (Pulse rate, Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), Vital capacity and Respiratory rate).
6. To find out the relationship between the motor fitness and physiological
Variables with the traditional suryanamaskar and Dynamic Suryaamaskar
• The study will be delimited to the 90 male sedentary college students (30 Traditional SuryaNamaskar Group, 30 Dynamic Surya Namaskar Group and 30 Control Group) of D.A.V.V Indore.
• The study will be delimited to the 12 Weeks Training of Traditional Suryanamaskar and Dynamic Suryanamaskar.
• The study will be further delimited to the age of subjects will range from 18to 28 years.
• The study will be delimited to following Motor Variables:-
1. Muscular Strength,
2. Muscular Endurance,
6. Reaction Time.
• The study will be delimited to following Physiological Variables:-
1. Resting Pulse rate.
2. Blood Pressure (systolic and diastolic).
3. Vital Capacity.
4. Respiratory rate.
• The study will be further delimited to three groups’ i.e., Dynamic Surya Namaskar, Traditional Surya Namaskar and Control group.
Subjects differed in life style, diet, nutritional status, routine work and socioeconomic status may affect the result of this investigation so considered as limitation of the study.
1. It is hypothesized that there will be improvement in motor fitness and Physiological Capacity of Sedentary college students.
2. It is hypothesized that there will be significant effect of Dynamic Surya Namaskar on motor fitness and Physiological variables of sedentary college students.
3. It is hypothesized that there will be significant difference between the Traditional Suryanamaskar and Dynamic Suryanamaskar groups on Motor fitness and Physiological Variables of Sedentary College Students.
4. It is hypothesized that there will be significant difference between all three groups i.e, Traditional Suryanamaskar group and Dynamic Suryanamaskar group and control group in Relation to Motor Fitness.
5. It is hypothesized that there will be significant difference between all three groups i.e., Traditional Suryanamaskar group and Dynamic Suryanamaskar group and control group in Relation to Physiological Variables.
6. It is Hypothesized that there will be no significant relationship between the motor fitness and Physiological Variables with Traditional Suryanamaskar and Dynamic Suryanamaskar.
Definition and explanation of terms
Surya Namaskar is a special sequence of yoga postures and chants that together comprise the traditional Sun Salutation.
Yoga is a way of life which can be practiced by any human being regardless of age and condition of health. Yoga is a gaining process of control over the mind.There by improving the physiological and psychological behaviour of an individual.
Asana means holding the body in a particular posture to bring stability to the body and poise to the mind. The practices of asana bring purity in tabular channels firmness to the body and vitality to the body and the mind.
Muscular endurance is the ability to move your body or an object repeatedly without getting tired. For most activities, you use both muscular strength and endurance.
Reaction time is the ability to respond rapidly to a stimulus (cue). Reaction time can be improved by explosive exercise and sport-specific practice.
Flexibility is the range of motion around a joint. Good flexibility in the
Joints can help prevent injuries through all stages of life.
Muscular Strength is the maximum amount of force that one can generate in a specific movement pattern at a specific velocity of contraction.
The pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial walls.
Heart rate the number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart).
Respiratory Rateis the number of breaths per minute or, more formally, the number of movements indicative of inspiration and expiration per unit time. In practice, the respiratory rate is usually determined by counting the number of times the chest rises or falls per minute.
Significance of the Study
1. This may be an alternative for regular conventional physical exercises that usually consume more time.
2. The finding of the study may be adding new knowledge in the field of yoga and Education and exercise physiological in general and in particular respectively.
3. The results of the study may be highlighting the effect of Dynamic and Traditional SuryaNamaskar on patients related to Various diseases.
4. The observation of the study may be also helpful the professionals in the field of therapeutic and rehabilitation programme.
5. Physical education teachers, coaches, health and fitness professionals can utilize the knowledge of proper doing Surya Namaskar in their training session for developing and maintaining muscular endurance which are the one most basic elements of physical fitness.