During the time

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During the time, the pressure inside the reservoir is reduced
because it will be not suf?cient to force the oil to the sur-
face. Thus, the secondary recovery method will be applied to
adjust the reservoir pressure Figure ??. To increase the reser-
voir pressure and to reduce the overall density of the ?uid in-
side the borehole, external energy may be introduced into the
reservoir Collins; Royce et al.. Thus, the injection of water or
gas is the most common technique which uses injection well
to introduce large quantities of water or gas under pressure
into the hydrocarbon-bearing zone. As water ?ows through
the formation towards the producing wells, it sweeps some of
the oil encounter with her and arriving at the surface, the oil
is separated and the water is reinjected. The average recov-

ery factor after primary and secondary oil recovery operations
is between 30 % to 50 % Sandrea and Sandrea 2007; Sen
Tertiary recovery or EOR begins when the secondary
oil recovery is not enough to continue the adequate extrac-
tion, but only when the oil can still be extracted pro?tably
(Figure ??). The main objective of the EOR process in ad-
dition to restore formation pressure is to improve the dis-
placement of oil or ?uid ?ow in the reservoir. This method
improves the recovery of the oil from 5 % to 15 % of which
remains trapped in the reservoir formation Samsudin et al.;
Wilkinson et al.; Satter and Iqbal 2016; Speight 2016.

In the Hassi Messaoud ?eld in the southern Algeria, the
water ?ooding technique are used to enhance oil recovery sig-
ni?cantly following a fall in pressure on all years of primary
oil output as shown on the Figure ??. These techniques are
used as a way to maintain reservoir pressure and / or sweep the
oil towards the production wells. The effectiveness of water
?ooding technique is affected by the following key parame-
ters: geometry and geology of the oil reservoir, petrophysical
properties (porosity and permeability), ?uids properties (vis-
cosity and wettability) and mineralogical properties (different
clays in the reservoir rock). However in laboratory scale, the
fundamental parameter which oil recovery it is based is to in-
vestigate the relative permeability curves. The latter used as a
basis to characterize porous and fractured reservoirs is based
on the multiphase ?uid ?ow. A reliable characterization of
this parameter, including a good quanti?cation of uncertain-
ties relating estimates, allows us to evaluate the performance
of the reservoir, the ultimate recovery of oil expected and
to study the effectiveness of the enhanced oil recovery tech-
niques Silpngarmlers et al.; Koederitz and Mohamad Ibrahim;
Hawkins; Honarpour et al. 1986; Ahmadi et al. 2015.