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Introduction Diabetes Mellitus

April 28, 2019 0 Comment

Introduction
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by several factors like impaired insulin production, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreased peripheral glycolysis resulting in the formation of hyperglycaemia.
Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Type Pathology Age of onset Treatment
Type 1 DM Autoimmune destruction of ?-cells of the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency Most commonly below the age of 20 Insulin therapy
Type 2 DM Insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion Most commonly above the age of 40 Pharmacotherapy with or without insulin
Gestational DM Insulin resistance Occurs during pregnancy period Diet and glycemic control

Neurodegeneration refers to a condition of continuous damage to the function and structural integrity of the nerve cells in the body. Neurodegenerative disorders usually affect the elderly population because of the accumulation of toxic proteins in the brain. The diseases usually manifest with loss of cognitive functions like memory, decision making and loss of motor functions like akinesia, tremors, and muscular atrophy.
Common Neurodegenerative disorders
Disease Pathology Defective Protein
Parkinson’s Depletion of dopamine levels in the basal ganglia ?-Synuclein
Alzheimer’s Deposition of protein plaques in the brain Amyloid ? and tau
Huntington’s Autosomal dominant with mutation of HTT gene Huntingtin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Autosomal dominant disorder affecting the motor neurons SOD1, TDP43, C9orf72

Diabetes has multiple complications like increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that chronic diabetes has an impact on the development of dementia and can lead to neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s disease. The following passages will explain the correlation between these two diseases.