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Senior Project Research Outline Proposal The Effects of Autonomy on Job Satisfaction By

April 19, 2019 0 Comment

Senior Project Research Outline Proposal
The Effects of Autonomy on Job Satisfaction
By: Kandyl Martinez
Submitted to:
Professor MacDonald
MGMT 496: Seminar in Management
November 24, 2018
Chapter I: Introduction
Statement of the problem. Why study autonomy on job satisfaction? There are so many reasons why an organization should care about job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been found to be a strong predictor of a worker’s behavior and performance. For example, reported job satisfaction has been used to predict separations, quits and labour productivity (e.g. Hamermesh 1977; Freeman 1978; Akerlof et al. 1988; Clark et al. 1997; Clark 2001; Shields and Price 2002; Levy-Garboura et al. 2001; Tsang et al. 1991). Secondly, job satisfaction is an important predictor of overall well-being (Argyle 1989; Clark 1997; Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza 2000; van Praag et al. 2003).
Purpose of the study. Scholars and others have identified many factors that contribute to job satisfaction, but I have decided to study professional and personal autonomy because I wanted to assess the effects of higher autonomy and how it will affect job satisfaction or vis versa. If the outcome of the research is as expected and supports the hypothesis than this can help an organization to retain its employee’s and lead to higher job performance.
Hypotheses. The overall hypothesis is that autonomy has a positive effect on job satisfaction of employees. The two specific hypotheses will be tested:
Employees who have higher levels of professional autonomy in their workplace have higher levels of job satisfaction than employees who have lower levels of professional autonomy in their workplace.
Employees who have higher levels of personal autonomy in their workplace have higher levels of job satisfaction than employees who have lower levels of personal autonomy in their workplace.
Definitions of Terms. There may be different ways to describe professional and personal autonomy and job satisfaction. The definitions for this study are as follows: Professional autonomy is “the freedom to exercise professional judgment as one sees fit, as well as able to choose their own way to carry out one’s own work.” Personal autonomy is “self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. (https://www.definitions.net/definition/personal+autonomy).” Job satisfaction is the “feeling of contentment or a sense of accomplishment, which an employee derives from his/her job (https://businessjargons.com/job-satisfaction.html).”
Importance of the Study. This study will investigate the effects of personal and professional autonomy on job satisfaction. If we find that my hypothesis is supported through this research, then more organizations may want to review the amount of autonomy that they give their employees as job satisfaction is one of the widely and frequently research concept in organizational behavior and proved that much satisfied employees with their work are much more productive, stable, loyal, supportive, and always committed to work (Memon &Jena, 2017).
Delimitations of the Study. This study will focus on job satisfaction of individuals who are currently employed in any business organization. The study does not deal with investigating past job satisfaction and level of personal and professional autonomy in a previous organization. This study will not be able to address any specific job title such as manager’s, director’s, executive’s, etc. The variables needed to address these other research questions are not part of the original survey data that is provided for secondary data analysis.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
The following studies below, contribute to both Hypothesis- 1: Employees who have higher levels of professional autonomy have higher levels of job satisfaction than employees who have lower levels of professional autonomy. Hypothesis 2: Employees who have higher levels of personal autonomy have higher levels of job satisfaction than employees who have lower levels of personal autonomy:
Ireri, Kioko.  (Mar 2016). High Job Satisfaction Despite Low Income: A National Study of Kenyan Journalists.

Mas-Machuca, Marta; Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Alegre, Ines. (2016). Work-life balance and its relationship with organizational pride and job satisfaction.

Arekar, Kirti; Jain, Rinku; Desphande, Bharthi; Sherin, Prem . (2016). RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS ON JOB SATISFACTION-ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT.

Park, Rhokeun . (2016). Autonomy and citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation model.

Luo, Lu 1 ; Hui Yen Lin 1 ; Chang-Qin, Lu 2 ; Oi-Ling Siu 3. (2015). The moderating role of intrinsic work value orientation on the dual-process of job demands and resources among Chinese employees.

There are numerous studies on autonomy on job satisfaction. The studies listed above main focus is job satisfaction in the work place as well as other components that plays a factor in job satisfaction. Most of the research above was conducted by a survey to collect information about attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and backgrounds and lifestyle characteristics from a sample of respondents. The overall findings from the research showed that most people who has high levels of autonomy has higher levels of job satisfaction than those who had low levels of autonomy.
Chapter III: Theoretical Framework
The Job Characteristic Model theory will be used to explain the relationships between professional and personal autonomy as they relate to job satisfaction. It is a theory of work design developed by G. Oldham and J. Hackman. It is widely used as a framework in an organization to study how job outcomes, including job satisfaction, are affected by certain job characteristics.
Job Characteristic Model theory is identified by the following five job characteristics, three psychological states, in which in return leads into four outcomes. You can see the model below:

By combining all of these core job characteristics, Job Characteristics Theory comes up with an equation showing the potential for a given job to be motivating. NB: MPS = Motivating Potential Score.

One conclusion we can draw from this equation is that Autonomy and Feedback matter more to motivation than any one of skill variety, task identity, or task significance. (https://expertprogrammanagement.com/2017/09/job-characteristics-model/). If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts that motivation, performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative work ethics. It is expected that professional/personal autonomy does play a factor in high job satisfaction. Without it one cannot achieve job satisfaction.

Chapter IV: Methodology
Research design. Overall research process is deductive as specific hypotheses are developed before data collection. A quantitative study using secondary data from a questionnaire will be used to determine the relationship between professional/personal autonomy and job satisfaction. The independent variable in the first hypothesis is professional autonomy and the dependent variable is job satisfaction. The independent variable in the second hypothesis is personal autonomy and the dependent variable is job satisfaction. The control variable for both H1 & H2 is currently employment.
Measurement of variables. A five-question survey questionnaire has been developed to measure professional (Independent variable), personal autonomy (Independent variable), and job satisfaction (Dependent variable). Close ended questions were used to get the respondents opinion on job satisfaction. 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1-5 (Strongly Disagree, Disagree, neither agree nor disagree, Agree and Strongly agree) used as the type of score in the questionnaire.

Sampling. The employed respondents to be examined in this study will be selected using a convenience sampling method. The survey was given to 150 people that are friends at work and other social networks to ask for participation in the study. The resulting sample size is 100 out of the 150 employees who responded to the survey. This sampling method was utilized by the original researcher who has obtained the data that is being analyzed in this study.

Research Methods. The data collection method that I will use is secondary data analysis from the dataset “Autonomy ; Job Satisfaction 1″ to address the research of the two hypotheses. The needed data for this study was collected through a questionnaire (see Appendices for specific survey questions). The data collection procedure involved sending the 5-question questionnaire to 150 friends at work and through social networks. The total number of people that has responded to the questionnaire is 100 out of 150.
Plan of Analysis. The data for this study was acquired using a questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire will be re-coded by a one (low) or a two (high) to measure the levels of professional/personal autonomy (the Independent variables) as they relate to job satisfaction (the Dependent variable).This will take place by utilizing anything less than 4 will be coded as a 1 and anything 4 and greater will be coded as a 2. The number will still relate to each response on the survey (i.e.” Strongly disagree=1=Very low”; “2=Somewhat disagree=2=Low”; “Neither agree nor disagree=3=Neither Low nor High”, “Somewhat agree=4=High” and “Strongly agree=5=Very High”). These same codes will be used for personal autonomy, professional autonomy and job satisfaction. There was an additional 5-question but the use was for only statistical purposes only. The computer software package that will be used to analyze the data is Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). It will include crosstabs and correlations to determine how strongly Professional/Personal autonomy is related to job satisfaction. This analysis method is chosen because it will help determine the level of Professional/Personal autonomy increases, does level of job satisfaction also increase or vis versa. All statistical analyses will be quantitative interpretation.
Appendices
Survey Questionnaire:
Section 1: In this first section, please answer the next five questions as they relate to your current hob. How much to you agree with the following statements?
Q1 I have control over the scheduling of my work
Strongly disagree (1)
Somewhat disagree (2)
Neither agree nor disagree (3)
Somewhat agree (4)
Strongly agree (5)
Q2 I have the freedom to exercise my professional judgment as I see fit while performing my job
Strongly disagree (1)
Somewhat disagree (2)
Neither agree nor disagree (3)
Somewhat agree (4)
Strongly agree (5)
Q3 I am able to choose the method(s) to use in carrying out my work
Strongly disagree (1)
Somewhat disagree (2)
Neither agree nor disagree (3)
Somewhat agree (4)
Strongly agree (5)
Q4 My job is such that I can decide when to do particular work activities
Strongly disagree (1)
Somewhat disagree (2)
Neither agree nor disagree (3)
Somewhat agree (4)
Strongly agree (5)
Q5 Generally speaking, I am satisfied with my job
Strongly disagree (1)
Somewhat disagree (2)
Neither agree nor disagree (3)
Somewhat agree (4)
Strongly agree (5)
Section 2 Please answer the next 5 questions for statistical purposes only
Q1 Gender
Male (1)
Female (2)
Q2 Age
Under 25 (1)
25-34 (2)
35-44 (3)
45-54 (4)
55+ (5)
Q3 Marital Status
Single (1)
Married (2)
Divorced (3)
Widowed (4)
Q4 Education Completed
High School Diploma (1)
Associate’s Degree (2)
Bachelor’s Degree (3)
Graduate Degree (4)
Q5 What is your annual household income?
Less than $30,000 (1)
$30,000-$49,999 (2)
$50,000-$79,000 (3)
$80,000-$99,999 (4)
More than $100,000 (5)
References
Akerlof. G., Rose, A., Yellen, J., 1988. Job Switching and Job Satisfaction in the U.S. Labor
Market, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 495-582.

Arekar, Kirti; Jain, Rinku; Desphande, Bharthi; Sherin, Prem . (2016). RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS ON JOB SATISFACTION-ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT.

Argyle, M., 1989. The Social Psychology of Work, 2nd edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Clark, A. E., 1997. Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work? Labour
Economics 4, 341-372.

Clark, A. E., 2001. What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data,
Labour Economics 8, 223-242.
Freeman, R. N., 1978. Job satisfaction as an economic variable, American Economic Review
68, 2, 135-141.

Hamermesh, D., 1977. Economic aspects of job satisfaction, in Essays in Labor Market
Analysis, edited by Ashenfelter O and Oates W, Toronto: John Wiley&Son.

Ireri, Kioko.  (Mar 2016). High Job Satisfaction Despite Low Income: A National Study of Kenyan Journalists.

Levy-Garboua, L., Montmarquette, C., Simonnet. V., 2001. Job satisfaction and quits: Theory
and evidence from the German socioeconomic panel, Cirano, Canada.

Luo, Lu 1 ; Hui Yen Lin 1 ; Chang-Qin, Lu 2 ; Oi-Ling Siu 3. (2015). The moderating role of intrinsic work value orientation on the dual-process of job demands and resources among Chinese employees
Mas-Machuca, Marta; Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Alegre, Ines. (2016). Work-life balance and its relationship with organizational pride and job satisfaction.

Memon, N., Jenna, L., 2017. Gender Inequality, Job Satisfaction and Job Motivation: Evidence from Indian Female Employees.

Park, Rhokeun . (2016). Autonomy and citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation model.

Shields, M., Price, S., 2002. Racial harassment, job satisfaction and intentions to quit:
Evidence from the British nursing profession, Economica 69, 295-362.

Sousa-Poza, A., Sousa-Poza, A., 2000. Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the
levels and determinants of job satisfaction, Journal of Socio-economics 29, 517-538.
Tsang, M. C., Rumberger, R. W., Levin, M., 1991. The impact of surplus schooling on
worker productivity, Industrial Relations, 209-228.

van Praag, B.M.S., Frijter, P., Ferrer-Carbonell, A., 2003. The anatomy of subjective well-
being, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, forthcoming 51, 29-49.