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Siwalik series are known as the freshwater sedimentary rocks of potwar plateaus and sub-Hamalian hills

April 2, 2019 0 Comment

Siwalik series are known as the freshwater sedimentary rocks of potwar plateaus and sub-Hamalian hills. Vertebrate fossils of Himalayas, Sindh, and perim, Island, Baluchistan and Burma are present in Siwaliks rocks by Colbert (1935).Miocene and Pilgrims are not more advanced than the fossils. And these fossils are divided the siwaliks rocks into three sub-divisions i.e. Upper siwaliks(boulder conglomerate zone,pinjor and Tatrot zone) middle siwaliks(Dhokpathan and Nagri Zone) and lower siwaliks (Chinji Zone and Kamlial Zone).
The comprehensive scientific description about Siwaliks was given by Falconer and Cutely (1847) in the book “Fauna Antique Sivalensis” the early fossils of Bovids were known 200 million years ago (Savage and long, 1986).The Boselaphines first appear in Pakistan, china, Africa and Europe in early Miocene. From Boselaphines the Bovine appears in the late Miocene (Vrba et al 2000)
Lydekker (1876) fellow Falconer and Caulty (1847) work and publication series of comprehensive monograph in “Paleontological India” and many other shorter contributions were also made in the “Geological survey of India”
Iqbal and Shah (1980) suggested that the Siwaliks series are the world famous rock containing vertebrates ‘fossils. Different Paleontologist studied different Siwaliks Colbert Fossils. An exclusive study of Siwaliks Proboscides has been made by Osborn (1936), Perissodactyla by Foresting (1968), Artiodactyl by Sarwar (19870.
Siwalik fauna would be under worked in in earliest 20thcentury by pilgrims and wrote different articles on various vertebrate groups. Pilgrims which was already reported by various Paleontologists criticized many genera and species.
Pilgrim investigated biostratigraphy of Siwalik Hills in (1913).Mathew (1929) reviewed Pilgrim work. Methew (1929) placed series high in the geological time on the basis of fossils of Hipparion in the Siwalik North America as others do before. Bovids of Siwaliks studied in detail by Falconer (1845) and pilgrims (1907, 1937, and 1939). These are also discussed by Nanda (1979, 982) and Sawar (1991).
The fossils of Bovids having large sized teeth which are having deep crowns and bend into folds and enamel surface which indicates that they feed on more fibers and more granules diet probably grass. The Bovinae of late Miocene was inhabited in the drier environment. (Jarmon 1947).
During early twentieth century the knowledge of siwalik vertebrates has greatly extended by
Dr. Guy E. Pilgrim (1913) .The diverse siwalik fauna development results from the progressive change in Siwalik climate is from a relatively dry plains environment to a moist and forest environment (Colburt,1935).
Pilgrim (1913) opened the field in the diversity and study of the Siwalik series. During the Miocene through Pliocene and, the Pleistocene, sedimentation deposits the uplift of the Himalayas from north to the east, which is the main source of the siwalik beds.

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