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Stress Removal Techniques

February 10, 2019 0 Comment

Stress Removal Techniques: Yoga and Musical Therapy Using Brain Computer Interface
Name: Tejas Pravin Phadnis
Matrikel-Nr: 406696
Date: 8 June 2018
Term Paper 1 (Draft)
Summer Session 2018: Introduction to Psychology
Abstract:
Nowadays every individual is experiencing stress in one or the other form. Generally, it is not possible to avoid tensions and stress completely, so everyone wants to reduce it as much as possible to become happy and healthy. Stress directly affects the human brain WWW4. The abnormal mental responses occurred during stressed condition which causes the imbalance in regular activities. Therefore, to study brain activities during stress condition are used to find out the solution to reduce stress of the individual. In this paper, the brain activities during stress are measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals which are generated by the nerve cells, called as neurons. The measurement is carried out with the help of electrodes (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a, b; Vijayaragavan et al, 2015). Smart systems based on Brain computer interface such as smart phones, softwares likes MATLAB are linked to the EEG signal generated by brain. Analysis of EEG signal helped to find out the reason of changes in mood and suggested yoga exercise to reduce the stress level (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017 b). Moreover, Tiwari & Tiwari in 2017 develped one smartphone application which provides musical therapy by playing melody as per the level of stress and shows the yoga exercise videos on mobile screen. With the help of such videos, individual can perform yoga exercises also. The main objective of the paper is to provide relaxation to a person by using various therapies when the stress level increases beyond certain level (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a, b; Vijayaragavan et al, 2015). To study the various methods which are useful to reduce stress of individual and improves their life standard (to become happy). This made me interested and motivated to select this topic for my term paper. There is no side effect of therapies like yoga and music, therefore it is always be helpful for each individual irrespective of their age.
Keywords—Electroencephalography (EEG), Smartphones.

Introduction:
A human body has a capability to react to any sort of circumstances. Stress is a self-generated way of responding to worries WWW3. Positive stress can be helpful for increasing concentration, energy and alertness. This result in the improvement of the performance but beyond a certain limit, it starts causing damage to day to day life such as health, relations, and quality of life which is called as negative stress. Because of this, body started slowly killing itself (Vijayaragavan et al, 2015). Everyone has a different impact of stress on their body such as behavioural change, mental illness, eating more or less, memory problem, etc WWW5. Furthermore, it results in various diseases like autoimmune disease, heart attack, reproductive issues, depression, etc. (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017 b). Every individual uses a different way of dealing with stress. Some people do exercises or go for a walk in the park, some talks with friends or take more sleep, eating healthy food or watching comedy movies is also one of the ways of relieving stress WWW4. Apart from this, Mrs. Paula Davis-Laack J.D suggests many strategies for reducing stress such as pet an animal slow breathing, play some game, give a hug to someone. But there are some methods like intake of drugs, medicines to reduce the stress have a harmful impact on human body. The main focus of the paper is on two methods of stress removal; one is yoga and another one is musical therapy. Nowadays, these methods are accepted worldwide and it does not have any side effect (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a, b; Vijayaragavan et al, 2015). As per my personal experience, yoga and meditation improves the concentration in studies and provide relaxation in mind. Therefore, one can feel energetic throughout the day. Apart from this, yoga is my hobby, makes me feel interested to write more about it.
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is an advancing technology which overcomes traditional human-to-system communication and provides a new communication path between human brain and external device like the computer, smartphones. With this interface, the signals generated by the brain are extracted and send as an input to the external devices for analysis and controlling of devices. This system is a combination of hardware and software. This technology is very helpful to connect brain thoughts during stress and distress condition to the smartphone applications (Ramadan et al, 2017).
Each thought generates different kind of frequency in the brain. Neurons inside the brain are responsible for this activity (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a). The frequency of the signal changes as per the type of thought and its intensity. For example, deep sleep, drowsiness, relaxation or stress and active alertness generate delta, theta, alpha, beta signals respectively. Each signal has different frequencies. This paper is mainly focused on the alpha frequency because the stress and distress levels depend on it. The state of relaxation is defined when the frequency of an alpha signal is less than or equal to 50 microvolts. (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017b).

The electroencephalography (EEG) is used to measure the electrical activities in the brain. It measures the signal frequency and signals intensity. With the help of these inputs, EEG determines the thought process inside the brain. EEG consists of several electrodes made up of silver, gold or steel, etc. Each electrode fits different parts of the brain such as the frontal pole, central, parietal, occipital, midline and temporal and read the signal generated by the brain on that part (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017b). The use of the electrode increases the complexity of the system. But it can be useful to read not only the signal in the brain but also eye movement, skin artifact, facial expression, wire movement, etc (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a). The signal measured by EEG is collected, analyze and transfer to the external device for the further process (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017a, b; Vijayaragavan et al, 2015). In this paper, the external devices used in BCI are the smartphone and its android application and software like MATLAB.
Experiment and Analysis:
The 2 experiments are conducted on different age group people. In one of the experiment, age group between 30 to 60 is considered and the duration of the experiment is 30 days. Participants had undergone through different situations like stress, distress and during such a condition their body motion, eye movement, muscle movement, facial expressions are recorded. There is a maximum number of women participated than men. To get an accurate result one precaution is taken that all participants are from different working and educational backgrounds. Therefore, they suffered a different level of stress (Tiwari & Tiwari, 2017b). A similar experiment is conducted on 150 participants by considering youngster’s also from aged group between 16 to 60 (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017a).

The first step of both the experiments is to measure the signals generated by the neurons in the brain. Therefore, the experimental setup for measurement is same. It consists of EEG; the measuring instrument and the cap. The cap consists of several small electrodes and has to wear on the head of the participants. The electrodes are mounted on each part of the brain and measure the data every second. EEG measures the signal generated by the brain with the help of electrodes. Furthermore, it determines the pulses created by various thoughts. Different thoughts create the different type of frequencies and from the different part of the brain. The data is gathered and send it for the analysis and for the further use (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017a, b).

The used of the gathered data with the help of external device comes under the second part of the experiment. In one experiment, MATLAB software is used for analysis of stress condition. Participants are asked to perform the yoga and meditation during stress condition. The precaution is taken to get the accurate result is the focus on breathing techniques. Each position in yoga is associated with breathing. Later, two types of analysis are carried out; one is psychological and another one is EEG measured. In the psychological analysis, facial expression and body movement before and after yoga in stress and distress condition is observed and the difference is plotted in MATLAB. Similarly, for EEG measurement pre and post results are observed (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017b).
Another method of using the measured data for analysis is by using smartphone android application. The cap which is used in the first step for measuring data is connected to mobile via Bluetooth. The application receives the data and accordingly user interface will get opened. 6 yoga asana and pleasant melodies are already installed in the application. As per the stress level of an individual, the respective melody will get played on mobile. In addition to this, videos of yoga asana including the explanation of each and every position will be played. So that participants can do exercise accordingly (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017a).
Result and Conclusion:
The result of both experiments shows the same results. There is the significant reduction in stress level after Yoga and meditation and/or music therapy. It significantly improves mental condition of participants by creating vibrations in breathing which creates positive thoughts in the brain. This method is also helpful to reduce anxiety. This method is very effective. It helps to synchronize breathing and movement and does not have any side effects (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017a, b). Furthermore, the feedback of the participants states that yoga and meditation increase concentration on breath and has a significant positive impact on mental condition. Almost 90% of the people felt better after these therapies (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017a). In another experiment also participants felt better result in terms of controlled heart rate, behavioral changes, etc (Tiwari ; Tiwari, 2017b).
It is scientifically proved that yoga and meditation are the super effective tool to reduce the stress and does not have any side effects. Other importance of doing yoga is it maintains the sugar content in the blood which gives freshness and long life to the individual WWW1. It is also useful for the students for their study as it increases concentration, brain memory power, and confidence. It develops the positive connection between mind and body WWW2.
The applicability of this method is time-consuming and needs complete setup including EEG headphone and Smartphone application and need time to practice yoga asana. Many times everyone is at different places like in workplace or university, so there is a need for simpler and easy to use mechanisms.

References:
Tiwari, A., ; Tiwari, R. (2017a). Design of a brain computer interface for stress removal using Yoga a smartphone application. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA). doi:10.1109/ccaa.2017.8229939
Tiwari, A., ; Tiwari, R. (2017b). Monitoring and detection of EEG signals before and after yoga during depression in human brain using MATLAB. 2017 International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). doi:10.1109/iccmc.2017.8282702
Vijayaragavan, G. R., Raghav, R., Phani, K., ; Vaidyanathan, V. (2015). EEG monitored mind de-stressing smart phone application using Yoga and Music Therapy. 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT). doi:10.1109/icgciot.2015.7380498
WWW1. 10 Ways to Relieve Stress in 5 Minutes or Less. Retrieved from ;https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/pressure-proof/201501/10-ways-relieve-stress-in-5-minutes-or-less; Accessed Jan 26, 2015
WWW2. 6 Ways Yoga Can Help You Reduce Stress. Retrieved from ;https://www.doyouyoga.com/6-ways-yoga-can-help-you-reduce-stress/; Accessed Aug 07, 2014.

WWW3. Psychological stress. Retrieved from ;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_stress; Accessed Jun 03,2018.

WWW4. Stress Symptoms, Signs, and Causes: Improving Your Ability to Handle Stress. Retrieved from ;https://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/stress-symptoms-signs-and-causes.html; Accessed Feb 01, 2018
WWW5. The Effects of Stress on Your Body. Retrieved from ;https://www.healthline.com/health/stress/effects-on-body#2; Accessed Jun 05, 2017
References :
Tiwari, A., ; Tiwari, R. (2017a). Design of a brain computer interface for stress removal using Yoga a smartphone application. In Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 992-996). IEEE. ……a
Tiwari, A., ; Tiwari, R. (2017, July). Monitoring and detection of EEG signals before and after yoga during depression in human brain using MATLAB. In Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), 2017 International Conference on(pp. 329-334). IEEE……………b
Vijayaragavan, G. R., Raghav, R., Phani, K., ; Vaidyanathan, V. (2015). EEG monitored mind de-stressing smart phone application using Yoga and Music Therapy. 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT). doi:10.1109/icgciot.2015.7380498
Psychological stress. (2018, April 25). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_stress6 Ways Yoga Can Help You Reduce Stress. (2014, August 07). Retrieved from https://www.doyouyoga.com/6-ways-yoga-can-help-you-reduce-stress/The Effects of Stress on Your Body. (2017 June 05).Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/stress/effects-on-body#2https://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/stress-symptoms-signs-and-causes.htmhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/pressure-proof/201501/10-ways-relieve-stress-in-5-minutes-or-lessRamadan, R. A., ; Vasilakos, A. V. (2017). Brain computer interface: control signals review. Neurocomputing, 223, 26-44.