Unit: 2 Equality, Diversity and Rights
P2-Describe discriminatory practice in health and social care
Discriminatory practice means discriminating someone against someone’s culture, disabilities, age, social class, gender, sexuality, cognitive ability, health status, and family status.
The different types of discriminatory practice are:
Infringement of rights
“Infringement is a violation of a law, right, or obligation”
https://www.myattorneyhome.com/Trademark/infringementInfringement of rights means breaking a law or not allowing someone to exercise rights they are entitled of, which is like ignoring or abusing a service user’s rights. According to the Human Rights 1998, “everyone in the UK have same rights and freedom” and if anyone deprive someone from the rights and freedom they are entitled of (it’s clearly discrimination), which can cause serious problems because it’s against the law. Usually, infringement of rights is done by ignoring someone’s right, therefore disadvantaging and treating them badly. An example of infringement of rights, is when a service user doesn’t have freedom of thought or choice because the career unprivileged them from their rights, so the service user doesn’t have any choice or opinion and has to listen or do whatever the career says because they are forced to.
https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/secondary-education-resources/useful-information/human-rights-case-studiesCovert or overt
“Covert discrimination involves subtle or passive acts of prejudice.” “Overt discrimination includes any direct or ‘overt’ act that aims to give unequal treatment to an individual”
https://opinionfront.com/covert-overt-discriminationCover discrimination is hidden discrimination often hard to show instead overt discrimination is the opposite, so it’s clear to distinguish as it’s usually made in public. Covert discrimination is quite common and most of the time we don’t recognise it. Covert discrimination is similar to indirect discrimination. Overt discrimination is openly, in front of people and most of the time is done to make someone feel bad and humiliated. Overt discrimination is like direct discrimination. Overt discrimination can be also determined as harassment as it creates a threating and humiliating environment around the individual, which can lead to low self-esteem or anger. For example: not employing someone because of their gender is covert discrimination, which most of the time people might not realise. Not letting somebody vote because of their race in front of everybody is overt discrimination.
https://www.reference.com/world-view/overt-discrimination-mean-75fe5216daacda68Abuse of power
“The act of using one’s position of power in an abusive way”
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/abuse-of-power.htmlAbuse of power means misusing the power a person owns. Higher position in jobs leads to higher power that some people use it in an abuse way. Using power in a wrong way is like taking advantage of people or manipulative them. Most of the time, people take advantage of vulnerable people, by forcing them do something against their willing, sexually, physically or emotionally abusing them. Often, they manipulate people and infringe their rights. At that point, vulnerable people don’t have any freedom of thought or choice. Powerful people use their power unfairly by making decisions without thinking about the disadvantages for some people. Abuse of power makes others feel powerless, vulnerable and worthless. It might also make you feel afraid and threating.
“Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual”
https://www.simplypsychology.org/prejudice.htmlPrejudice means making an assumption about someone before really getting to know them. It’s an opinion without a reason, thought or knowledge, it’s just a first impression. Prejudice is like discrimination by perception. Making an idea of a person only by the way they talk, act or dress. Pre-judging someone is a negative behaviour towards someone, for no valid reason and due to ignorance, which can lead to a possible marginalisation for the victim. Prejudice often lead to stereotypes and it can be conscious or unconscious, as someone might not realise to prejudge someone or being prejudged. Prejudgment cause incomplete conclusion, which can change the way someone behave with the person prejudged. Mainly, lack of knowledge causes prejudgment that lowers a person’s low-esteem.
A stereotype is “…a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996).
https://www.simplypsychology.org/katz-braly.htmlStereotyping is when a person or society make judgment on a specific category. They put someone in a specific category. They overgeneralise causing a loss of individuality. Overall, stereotypes are imposed upon a group of people because of gender, race or other characteristics, over categorising and losing individuality. Sometimes stereotypes are caused by prejudices and made by the society. Even though, not everyone is the same and stereotypes are not true, most of the people tend to believe them, which makes people behave differently towards those people. An example for stereotype is “blonde haired women are dumb”, which is just an opinion, not based on true facts or figures.
“Labelling is describing someone or something in a word or short phrase.”
https://www.definitions.net/definition/labellingLabelling means giving a negative name to someone. Giving a label is like stereotyping but instead of categorising a group of people, we categorise a person. Labelling is also an assumption caused by lack of knowledge. So, people label someone with limited information about the individual. It’s like putting a sticker with a name on a person without knowing them, but only based on their appearance or race, etc… People sometimes might not realise that they are labelling someone. Labelling can be also nicknaming our friends, for fun, without realising that it might be offensive for them. Examples of labelling is calling someone “loser” or “stupid” for a person’s disability.
“Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behaviour”
https://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.htmlBullying means physically and mentally harming someone. Usually, bullying is done by powerful people, who abuse their power and abuse others. There are lots of types of bullying like:
Verbal bullying which is like teasing, labelling, name calling, mimic or taunting repeatedly to make the victim feel frustrated.
Psychological bullying it’s when bullies intimidate or threatened the victim.
Social bullying that is like spreading false rumours about a person, so everyone will stop socialising with him /her or embarrassing someone in front of everyone.
The most common type is physical abuse that includes hitting, kicking, punching, pinching or making someone trip or slip purposely.
All these types of bullying might cause mental problems and depression. Often a group of people target a single person, usually the one they think is the weakest, and bully them altogether. Rarely someone helps or stops someone from bullying a person, because everyone is scared of the “bully”, which is usually considered as the powerful and aggressive person. There are lots of bullying happening everywhere: from workplaces to care homes.
“Abuse is to treat someone cruelly or violently”
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/abuseAbuse is mistreatment of a person or group of people. Mistreatment means disrespecting someone and offending them. Abuse can be in various forms and the most common types that a service user might experience are:
Physical abuse means harming someone physically for no reason like hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning, suffocating etc… Causing physical injuries such us broken leg, bruises or cuts. Sexual abuse can also be determined as physical violence.
Sexual abuse is when a person is forced or pressured to take part in sexual activities. Rape is also considered to be part of this category as someone is forced to have sex. Sexual abuse can be also when someone is pressured to send sexual messages or images against their willing or when someone is being touched or bullied in a sexual way. Sexual abuse and physical abuse have a common connection because both of them cause physical harm and injuries in the body.
Emotional abuse or also known is psychological abuse is when someone is emotionally maltreated like humiliating, insulting, isolating, threating, intimidating someone. Sometimes we don’t realise, but we can emotionally abuse someone by insulting them unintentionally or by joking.
“Discrimination or prejudice based on race.”
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-racism-2834955Racism is a belief that a specific race is inferior to another. It is hate against a person because of their race, which includes: skin colour, language or culture. It’s a hate crime, which can include: physical attacks, verbal abuse or bullying. Racist people find it hard to socialise with people with a different race because they can’t accept the differences every person has, and they think their race is superior that dominate other races. Example of racism is, for example: not allowing African people to vote because of their skin colour.
“Prejudice or discrimination based on sex”
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sexismSexism is like racism, but its discrimination based on a person’s gender, which means treating unequally because of the gender. Usually, this prejudice is against women because men think they are superior then women. So, they think men are dominant and oppressing only because of their gender. Sexism sometimes is unconscious, and people might set up rules or policies, which are sexists but don’t realise it. Even sexism it’s a consequence of ignorance. Example of sexism that we don’t realise it is, for example: women pay scale is lower than men or less than a half of the politicians are female.
“Prejudice against homosexual people”
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/homophobiaHomophobia means intolerance towards bisexual people. Bisexual people are lesbian or gay. Like racism and sexism, homophobia is because of immaturity and lack of knowledge. Homophobic people tend to bully bisexual people, in fact lots of bisexual and transgender people have claimed to have experienced physical and verbal abuse from homophobic people only because of their gender. Homophobia is based in irrational fear and misunderstanding. Some people are homophobic because of their religion beliefs or because of the values their parents taught. Example of homophobia is when you judge someone only by their appearance, in fact often men who wear pink are pre-judge by sentences like: “that’s so gay” or they keep teasing them.
https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/sexual-orientation-gender/sexual-orientation/what-homophobiaP3- describe potential effects of discriminatory practice
The effects of these discriminatory practice are:
Marginalising means isolating, which means people put them apart from others. Marginalisation is caused by abuse and bullying, because it makes a person feel worthless and powerless, so they tend to isolate themselves from the outside world.
An example of marginalisation in Tormented Lives, is the quote “He doesn’t want to walk anymore” said by the brother of the disabled boy, (Garen), who couldn’t go out because he was scared, so he lost his rights and he didn’t feel safe anymore. In Winterbourne, an example of marginalisation is when Simon isolate himself from others when he understands that he was a target of bullying, in fact he sat on the sofa alone with a blanket on him.
Disempowerment means making someone feel powerless and insignificant, which is done my infringing service user’s rights. Taking away a service user’s rights and taking decisions for them without consent, makes them feel valueless because the power of the career might put them down.
There is an example of disempowerment in Winterbourne, where the 40 years old lady, who lived in a fantasy world, was put on the floor, which prevented her to move and the career said, “I put them all down”. Putting her on the floor made her feel powerless and she couldn’t fight back. Even Simon, couldn’t stand up for himself and fight back, instead he had to follow whatever the career said.
Low self-esteem and self-identity
Low self-esteem and self- identity mean not having enough confidence and enough self-worth. Low self-esteem can lead to depression and marginalisation. Low self-esteem it’s caused by anxiety and self-doubt.
In the video Tormented Lives, the brother of the disable boy said, “I am not strong”, which showed that he had a low self-esteem and he didn’t believe in himself anymore. In Winterbourne, the career verbally abused a service user, saying that she was fat, which is going to decrease her self-esteem.
Restricted opportunities mean not having equal opportunities and equal access to everything. Restricted opportunities can cause loss of rights and can make someone feel powerless as they don’t have a way out.
In Tormented Lives, Garen admits that his disable brother “doesn’t want to walk anymore”, which shows that his opportunities are restricted as he doesn’t have right to walk freely.
Negative behaviours are aggression or criminality. Negative behaviours are a reaction to abuse and because service users can’t fight against the career, they express their anger by being aggressive and disobedient.
In the video Tormented Lives, Garen says, “I am off”, which is a sign of anger caused by stress, it’s his reaction to abuse. In the video Winterbourne, when the career physically abuses a service user, her immediate reaction is shouting and screaming loudly.
I want to analyse the materials “Panorama- stolen childhood: The grooming scandal” and “Rotherham grooming scandal”. The video showed how guys were dressing smartly and driving expensive cars to groom girls and what the effects of grooming were.
At the beginning they say, “Asian thought that white girls were trash” which tells us an example of labelling. The police were also labelling the girls as “naughty” or “liars”. Emma’s reaction to this labelling was aggression. Girls were raped, abducted (marginalisation) and looked up by men breaking the girls’ right of freedom. For marginalisation Emma, the 12 years old girl who was sexually assaulted, said: after she was sexually exploited, she started to “keep secrets from her parents” which means she was isolating herself from her family, she wasn’t telling them the truth.
Examples of disempowerments are when Lindsay said: “I had to sleep to whoever” and “adults were controlling me” indicating that she was powerless, she couldn’t say no, she didn’t have the right of liberty or freedom of thought. If girls said no, they were physically abused like: punching, kicking or murder, as the one of the girls said the abuser threated them, they said: “if you resist, I am going punch you harder”.
One of the common effects of sexual abuse is unwanted pregnancy that was against the law because an adult couldn’t have sex with a girl/boy under the age of 18.
Self- esteem was a big effect that eventually can lead to depression and Emma told us how the abusers threated her telling her that she was a trash: “I was seen as a trash”.
In the 1990, people labelled grooming as child prostitution, pointing out that it’s the child’s fault and they enjoyed sex, which is an example of a prejudice by men about women.
In the first video, the police were sexist, and they didn’t do anything besides making assumption about girls. The police couldn’t help the girls when the abusers punished them for saying the truth. The girls went to the police with the hope to get help but instead they made her feel guilty, in fact Emma agrees with this, saying: “they try to make me ashamed and like it’s my fault” which decreased Emma’s self-esteem and damaged her psychologically. The police’s attitude is men prejudice, which is discrimination.
One of the reasons police couldn’t investigate it’s the ethnicity problems because the society might get aggressive for the fact that only Asian men where suspected. The council didn’t want to make it a big deal, so they never tried to fix this problem until 2015.
Sarah’s mother said that her daughter (11 years old) was sexually exploited and when she desperately tried to call the police, her abuser (17 years old guy) murdered her.
Thanks to the Safeguarding Act 2015 grooming has been an offense before 2015, the police didn’t say anything.
M1- assess the effects on those using the service of three different discriminatory practices: